How Traditional Healers Are Transforming HIV Care in South Africa

In the rural town of Bushbuckridge, South Africa, traditional healer Shadrack Mashabane’s hut is adorned with colorful fabrics and filled with an array of herbs and medicines in glass bottles. But among these traditional remedies sits a new addition: a white box containing an HIV testing kit. Mashabane is one of a growing number of traditional healers in South Africa who are being trained to provide HIV testing and counseling to their patients, marking an innovative approach to combating the HIV epidemic in the country.

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South Africa has one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in the world, with an estimated 7.5 million people living with the virus. Despite the availability of free antiretroviral therapy (ART) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), stigma and distrust in the formal healthcare system persist, particularly in rural areas. This has led many to turn to traditional healers as their first point of care.

Recognizing the influential role that traditional healers play in their communities, researchers from the University of Witwatersrand have launched a pilot study to train and certify these practitioners to offer HIV testing and counseling services. The goal is to leverage the trust and accessibility of traditional healers to expand HIV testing and linkage to care, especially among hard-to-reach populations.

Bridging the Gap Between Traditional and Modern Medicine

The integration of traditional healers into HIV care is not a new concept in South Africa. Previous studies have explored the potential for collaboration between traditional and biomedical healthcare systems. However, this latest initiative represents the largest known effort to date to formally train and certify traditional healers as HIV counselors.

The training program, developed by the University of Witwatersrand, equips traditional healers with the knowledge and skills to administer rapid HIV tests, provide pre- and post-test counseling, and refer patients to local clinics for confirmatory testing and treatment. Participants undergo a rigorous certification process and receive ongoing support from the research team.

Mashabane, who completed the training, reports that while some patients were initially skeptical about receiving HIV testing from a traditional healer, many have come to embrace the service. “I had to show them my certificate to prove my qualifications,” he explains. By offering testing in a familiar and trusted setting, traditional healers like Mashabane are helping to break down barriers to HIV testing and care.

Addressing Stigma and Improving Access to Care

One of the key challenges in the fight against HIV in South Africa is the persistent stigma surrounding the disease. Many people fear being seen at clinics or hospitals and having their HIV status disclosed to the community. This fear of stigma can lead to delays in seeking testing and treatment, allowing the virus to spread unchecked.

Traditional healers, who are deeply embedded in their communities, are uniquely positioned to address this stigma and provide a safe and confidential space for HIV testing. Florence Khoza, another traditional healer who underwent the training, notes that she now routinely encourages her patients to get tested for HIV, emphasizing that it is in their best interest.

For patients who test positive, traditional healers can play a crucial role in linking them to care and supporting adherence to treatment. Khoza reports that she often collects HIV medication on behalf of her patients who are too afraid to visit the clinic themselves. By serving as a bridge between patients and the formal healthcare system, traditional healers can help ensure that more people living with HIV receive the care they need.

The Potential for Impact

The pilot study involving traditional healers in Bushbuckridge is still in its early stages, but researchers are optimistic about its potential to make a significant impact on the HIV epidemic in South Africa. With over 2,000 traditional healers serving a population of 750,000 in this region alone, the scale-up of this approach could dramatically expand access to HIV testing and care.

Ryan Wagner, a senior research fellow involved in the study, believes that testing and treating via traditional healers could ultimately lead to the elimination of new HIV cases in rural areas like Mpumalanga, which bears a significant portion of the global HIV burden. By meeting people where they are and leveraging the trust and influence of traditional healers, this innovative model has the potential to reach those who have been left behind by conventional HIV prevention and treatment efforts.

Building on Lessons Learned

The integration of traditional healers into HIV care in South Africa builds on lessons learned from similar efforts in other African countries. In Mozambique, for example, a referral system has been established where traditional healers refer patients to clinics for HIV testing and then provide follow-up care based on the results. This collaborative approach has been shown to increase HIV testing uptake and improve patient outcomes.

Other studies have highlighted the importance of providing traditional healers with proper training and support to ensure the safety and effectiveness of their practices. A study in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa found that while traditional healers were able to identify signs and symptoms of AIDS after training, they also identified the need for additional resources such as rural AIDS hospices and trained home-care personnel.

As the pilot study in Bushbuckridge progresses, researchers will be closely monitoring its impact and identifying areas for improvement. Key questions to be addressed include the acceptability of traditional healer-initiated testing among different demographic groups, the effectiveness of referral systems, and the long-term sustainability of the model.

A Comprehensive Approach to Ending the Epidemic

While the engagement of traditional healers in HIV testing and care is a promising step forward, it is important to recognize that no single intervention will be sufficient to end the HIV epidemic in South Africa. A comprehensive approach that addresses the social, economic, and structural drivers of the epidemic is needed.

This includes efforts to reduce poverty and inequality, promote gender equality, and combat discrimination against marginalized groups such as sex workers and LGBTQ+ individuals. It also requires continued investment in biomedical interventions such as ART and PrEP, as well as the strengthening of health systems to ensure that these interventions are accessible and affordable to all who need them.

At the same time, the integration of traditional healers into HIV care serves as a powerful reminder of the importance of community engagement and the need to tailor interventions to local contexts. By working with traditional healers and other community leaders, HIV prevention and treatment efforts can be made more culturally relevant, acceptable, and effective.

Final Thoughts.

The training and certification of traditional healers to provide HIV testing and counseling in South Africa represents an innovative and promising approach to expanding access to care and reducing the burden of the epidemic. By leveraging the trust and influence of these practitioners, this model has the potential to reach those who have been left behind by conventional HIV prevention and treatment efforts.

As the pilot study in Bushbuckridge progresses, it will be important to carefully evaluate its impact and identify lessons learned that can inform the scale-up of this approach in other regions of South Africa and beyond. At the same time, the engagement of traditional healers should be seen as one component of a comprehensive response to the HIV epidemic that addresses its social, economic, and structural drivers.

Ultimately, ending the HIV epidemic in South Africa and around the world will require a sustained and collaborative effort that engages communities, strengthens health systems, and promotes human rights and social justice. The integration of traditional healers into this effort is a step in the right direction, and one that offers hope for a future free from the burden of HIV/AIDS.


Hi there!I'm C.K. Gupta, the founder and head writer at With a passion for health and wellness, I created FitnTip to share practical, science-backed advice to help you achieve your fitness goals.Over the years, I've curated valuable information from trusted resources on topics like nutrition, exercise, weight loss, and overall well-being. My aim is to distill this knowledge into easy-to-understand tips and strategies you can implement in your daily life.Whether you're looking to get in shape, eat healthier, or simply feel your best, FitnTip is here to support and guide you. I believe that everyone has the potential to transform their health through sustainable lifestyle changes.When I'm not researching the latest health trends or writing for FitnTip, you can find me trying out new fitness routines, experimenting with nutritious recipes, and spending quality time with loved ones.I'm excited to have you join our community as we embark on this wellness journey together. Let's make positive, lasting changes and unlock a healthier, happier you!

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